A weekly newsletter focusing on climate and environmental justice, regulatory and judicial actions, science and fellow activist allies. From the U.S. Northeast, around the nation and across the world!

June 12, 2018
It has long been known by the fracking industry that shale well depletion is exponential. Thus to replace depletion more wells would have to drilled at a faster rate just to keep up the initial production rate. In Lewis Caroll’s “Through the Looking Glass,” Alice is compelled to run a race with the Red Queen. But run as she might, she has to keep going faster just to stay in place. The shale drilling industry is learning that a race with the Red Queen is not winnable. And below the shale there is no more petroleum or gas.
But first the news.

Action Alert! Call Cuomo Monday:
Complete the Fracking Ban

Click to download full size

Today and all this week, Call Cuomo at 877-235-6537 about Millennium Pipeline expansion.

This week, you will hear from Melissa Martens of Orange Co., NY. Her community demands that Cuomo complete the fracking ban and shut down the multiple Millennium Pipeline expansion projects that are putting all of our health, safety and democracy at risk. We demand that Cuomo shuts down:
• CPV Power Plant Built on Bribes from Cuomo’s administration
• Eastern System Upgrade with the Highland Compressor Station that is razing the Catskill forests
• Valley Lateral Pipeline that connects the CPV with the Millennium transmission line
• Stop Millennium from stealing our municipal water for their construction
Here’s the facebook page: https://www.facebook.com/events/170589966954786/

Sample Tweets:

1. #CallCuomoMonday Demand he shuts down the entire Millennium Pipeline Expansion and completes the fracking ban. #StopCPV #HaltValleyLateral #StopFrackingWaterTheft #HaltHighlandCompressor<
2. .@NYGovCuomo Why are you allowing the theft of municipal tax payers’ water for Millennium Pipeline Co. private profit? #OurRiskTheirProfit
3. .@NYGovCuomo If you love the Catskills, why is Millennium Pipeline Co. razing our forests putting our ecosystem, water and air at risk?
4. #CallCuomoMonday @NYGovCuomo claims on video that he did not approve any power plants, so why does CPV continue construction and poisoning the air? #StopCPV

Please share the event on Facebook: https://www.facebook.com/events/170589966954786/

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Can We Stop FERC From Rushing Us
Toward Climate Catastrophe?

Can We Stop FERC From Rushing Us Toward Climate Catastrophe?

It could be argued that, outside of the companies involved in the actual extraction, transmission and sale of fossil fuels, no group of people on Earth can take as much responsibility for our current climate catastrophe as the commissioners at the Federal Energy Regulatory Commission (FERC).

In 1977, FERC was established to regulate national energy policy independently of Congress and even, to a great extent, the president. The commissioners are nominated by the president and then confirmed by the Senate. Under the Natural Gas Act (1938), FERC reviews interstate pipeline applications for “convenience and necessity,” as well as compliance with the National Environmental Policy Act (NEPA).

Around the US, leaks and explosions, as well as air, soil and water pollution have motivated people to push back against pipelines and compressor stations. While FERC has ostensibly reviewed the proposals, it is not clear whether the commissioners are being guided by health impacts, environmental concerns and climate change as much as by a desire to serve the industry that pays their fees and to which they may return after their stint on the commission.

When we consider that pipelines put in the ground in the last decade are more likely to fail than those built in the 1940s, we understand that something has gone very wrong with FERC. Scientists are telling us we must leave fossil fuels in the ground to avoid runaway global warming. But human health and even the future of the planet may not speak as loudly to our legislators as industry dollars, so it remains doubtful that Congress will rein in this captured agency.

Further Reading: FERC splits again on affiliates, climate in Florida pipeline approval

The courts have ruled on some of the commission’s failures to observe NEPA. In the case of Tennessee Gas Pipeline Company’s Northeast Upgrade Project, five pipeline loops were submitted separately to FERC and approved, even though the segments were part of a single project. The DC Circuit Court of Appeals decision sided with Delaware Riverkeeper Network and others, judging this to be a case of illegal segmentation. The DC Circuit Court also agreed with Sierra Club and others who charged that FERC had failed to use carbon costing on the Southeast Market Pipelines Project (aka Sabal Trail) in Florida. Those rulings have been like water off a duck’s back to FERC because the Commission can issue what’s called a tolling order, which allows a challenged project to proceed with construction even though its case may not have been decided or even scheduled by the court.

Two significant FERC orders this past year on New York pipelines may give a sense of where FERC is headed as the planet heats up.…—Dennis Higgins, “Can We Stop FERC From Rushing Us Toward Climate Catastrophe?Truth-out, 6/11/18

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Pennsylvania Supreme Court rules Against Presumptive Drilling in Residential Areas

A Pennsylvania Supreme Court decision handed down Friday in a Lycoming County zoning case reversed a lower court ruling that had allowed the drilling of a natural gas well in a residential-agricultural district.

The decision involves a 2014 case, Gorsline vs. Board of Supervisors of Fairfield Township, where a group of residents had appealed the supervisors’ decision to allow the drilling of a well by Inflection Energy LLC on a 59-acre parcel of land in Montoursville in the northeastern part of Pennsylvania. Fairfield Township zoning law doesn’t specifically allow drilling but the supervisors believed its use was allowed because it was “similar to” other uses, a decision that was later backed in a ruling by the Commonwealth Court.

Friday’s 4-3 ruling reversed the Commonwealth Court’s decision.

“Because the Ordinance does not expressly authorize a gas well’s use in any of the Township’s three zoning districts, such a use cannot enjoy any presumption of being ‘similar to’ uses that are permitted in those districts,” said the ruling by Associate Justice Christine L. Donohue.

Donohue’s ruling noted that the drilling was not automatically off-limits a residential district, but that the municipality needed to amend its zoning to permit drilling with whatever limitations it wanted.

“What a governing body may not do, however, and what the Fairfield Township Board of Supervisors did in this case, is to permit oil and gas development in residential/agricultural districts without first enacting the necessary amendments,” she wrote.…—Paul J. Gough, “Pennsylvania Supreme Court rules on Gorsline vs. Fairfield Township Board of Supervisors,” Pittsburgh Business Times, 6/1/18

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Pennsylvania state senator asks PUC to halt Mariner East pipeline construction

State senator files complaint asking PUC to halt Mariner East pipeline construction | StateImpact Pennsylvania

State Senator Andy Dinniman is trying to halt construction on two natural gas liquids pipelines, in West Whiteland Township, Chester County, alleging they pose a serious threat to public health and safety.

Dinniman filed a formal complaint and petition for emergency relief Thursday with the state Public Utility Commission. At issue is Sunoco Logistics’ Mariner East pipeline project, which has been plagued with technical, legal, and environmental problems. It includes three parallel natural gas liquids lines — the Mariner East 1, the Mariner East 2, and the Mariner East 2X.

The PUC suspended service on the Mariner East 1 line earlier this spring, citing safety concerns related to sinkholes, and saying that a pipeline leak could have a “catastrophic” effect on public safety.

Further reading Pennsylvania halts ETP Sunoco Mariner East pipeline again
Mariner East 2 pipeline drilling halted in Middletown

Dinniman’s complaint and petition relate to the second two lines — the Mariner East 2 and 2X.

“I have a moral, ethical, and constitutional duty to stand for the safety of the people of Chester County and the protection of their children and families, as well our environment, drinking water, natural resources, and public infrastructure,” said Dinniman, a Chester County Democrat. “I am asking the PUC to consider all of that – the numerous drilling problems, the risks to safety, the proximity to homes and schools, and the unique and problematic geology of the region – in concluding that these pipelines should not be built here period.”…—Marie Cusick, “State senator files complaint asking PUC to halt Mariner East pipeline construction,” StateImpact Pennsylvania, 4/27/18

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Incinerator bill approved by Assembly committee

Incinerator bill approved by Assembly committee

ROMULUS — A bill that would exclude solid waste incinerators from using the Article 10 expedited process of the Board on Electric Generation Siting and the Environment passed one legislative hurdle Thursday.

The bill was approved unanimously by the Assembly Energy Committee and now goes to the full Assembly.

It specifically was crafted to deal with a proposed $365 million waste-to-energy incinerator proposed for a 48-acre site on the former Seneca Army Depot in Romulus. The developer is Circular EnerG LLC of Rochester.

An identical bill introduced into the state Senate has been revised and remains in the Senate Energy and Telecommunications Committee.…—David Shaw, “Incinerator bill approved by Assembly committee,” Finger Lakes Times, 6/8/18

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The Resource Curse of Appalachia

Opinion | The Resource Curse of Appalachia

Jason Clark has lived near Amity, Pa., in the southwestern part of the state, since he was born. He likes to call urban Americans “hypocrites.” At 38, he’s the president of the Pork Association in Washington County, which sits at the edge of Appalachia. City dwellers are consumers, as he sees it; they gobble up resources like meat and coal and natural gas without knowing where they come from or thinking much about the toll that rural Americans pay to supply them.

There’s a term for that toll. Economists call it the resource curse, or the paradox of plenty. Since the 1990s, political scientists and development experts have used the resource curse to explain why countries richest in fossil fuels tend to remain poor. The problem, they contend, lies in the toxic impact of large influxes of cash: Easy money displaces more productive economic activity and fosters weak governments.

Typically, scholars apply the term to poorer continents, yet it affects America also, and nowhere more so than Appalachia. Oil was discovered in western Pennsylvania in the 1850s. And for more than a century, coal companies have clear-cut hollows to burrow into the earth below.

Corporations influenced local politicians and owned local businesses. They set the price of bread and the number of hours in a workday. For a time, these companies also supplied jobs and, by extension, built communities as churches and schools grew up around mines. Yet education wasn’t really a focus. For laborers, the best-paid positions were underground. They required high levels of specialized skill best learned on the job.

Over the past several decades, as market forces and dwindling supplies have pushed coal companies into bankruptcy, they’ve abandoned towns, leaving behind the ravages of slag heaps and thousands of miles of streams and rivers polluted by acid mine drainage. Drive along the border between Pennsylvania and West Virginia and you’ll see waterways that are the bright orange of hunters’ vests. Neither the state nor towns can afford to pay the cleanup costs.

Fracking, however, promised to be different. When the natural gas boom arrived in the region more than a decade ago, it came with assurances that natural gas would burn cleaner than coal, releasing only half the amount of carbon into the atmosphere. Its proponents also argued that after a time, its environmental footprint would be so small that it would disappear into the rural landscape. For Appalachia’s residents, who’d experienced generations of mining and drilling on their farms and were well versed in the language of mineral rights, fracking brought with it the possibility of finally profiting off their land by signing lucrative leases to the oil and gas beneath their feet.… —Eliza Griswold, “The Resource Curse of Appalachia,” The New York Times, 6/9/18

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Running with the Red Queen
The Ignored Financial Disaster of Fracking

Red Queen effect can make production slow down in a hurry

Red Queen effect can make production slow down in a hurry

Red Queen effect can make production slow down in a hurry

SAN ANTONIO — In the early days of the Eagle Ford Shale, one of Petrohawk’s wells in McMullen County came in big.

It was the fall of 2009 and about a year after the company had announced its first successful well in neighboring La Salle County, setting off a mineral-leasing frenzy that swept across South Texas like a vast dust devil.

Petrohawk’s McMullen County well had initial production of 1.39 million cubic feet of gas per month.

By October 2010, the Petrohawk well was making 24 million cubic feet of gas per month.

This year, the same well is making around 8.9 million cubic feet of gas, according to the Texas Railroad Commission.

Companies have since switched to hunting crude oil, but the huge drop off in Eagle Ford well production hasn’t changed.

Eagle Ford wells come in producing large amounts of oil or gas, but drop like a roller coaster after a year — a more than 60 percent dip that experts say is inherent to shale production.

Further reading Insiders Sound an Alarm Amid a Natural Gas Rush
Is Shale Oil Production from Bakken Headed for a Run with ‘The Red Queen’?

That sharp decline is one of the reasons — along with high profits — that tens of thousands of wells are predicted for South Texas: Companies must keep drilling to keep replacing their production.

It’s called the Red Queen, named after the character in Lewis Carroll’s “Through the Looking-Glass” who tells Alice she must run, “Faster! Faster!”…—Jennifer Hiller, “Red Queen effect can make production slow down in a hurry,” Fuel Fix, 10/30/13

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Peaking Over the Precipice:
The Red Queen Comes to Shale Oil

The Red Queen Effect refers to the phenomena, courtesy of Lewis Carroll, of having to run faster to stay in the same place, or in the oil business, drilling more wells to maintain production levels.

As Deborah Lawrence notes in a recent post, the two biggest shale oil fields in the US, the Bakken and the Eagle Ford are approaching that threshold – where 100% of the production from new wells are offsetting declines from older wells – not increasing the net output of the field. Meaning the productive capacity of the field may be peaking.

The drop in drilling activity is price-driven, so the Red Queen Effect has not kicked in yet, but, at current prices, shale oil production has plateaued if not peaked.

Shale Oil: Peaking Over the Precipice

“Tight oil in the US is experiencing shocking deterioration in production vs. declines percentages just since November. Rig counts have plunged and though production overall is still rising, the amount used to offset the steep declines in older tight oil wells is skyrocketing. For instance, in the Bakken as recently as November 2014, 71% of all new production coming online was being used to do nothing but offset the declines in older wells. This was a very high figure. But over the ensuing three months as crude prices crumbled and capital expenditure has been slashed this figure has soared to 86%.

The same thing is happening in the Eagle Ford where 72% of all new production was needed in November 2014 but has now risen to 89%. This is problematic because these figures are rapidly approaching 100% which means that the plays are quickly falling into decline. The amount of new production simply cannot keep up with the steep declines in older wells. Unfortunately “older” in shale gas and tight oil means a mere 4-5 years. These are not long lived wells.

This is a classic illustration of the challenge of shale production. Without a frenzy of relentless drilling, operators just can’t maintain a stable production profile. Almost literally, the minute they stop drilling, the whole exercise begins to unravel within months. And yet, this is what the industry lobbyists proposes we bet our energy future on.”

Or, as Arthur Berman notes, After shale, no mas.…—Chip Northrup, “Shale Oil Peak,” NoFrackingWay, 2/15/15

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Pope Tells Oil Executives to Act on Climate: ‘There Is No Time to Lose’

Pope Tells Oil Executives to Act on Climate: ‘There Is No Time to Lose’

ROME — Three years ago, Pope Francis issued a sweeping letter that highlighted the global crisis posed by climate change and called for swift action to save the environment and the planet.

On Saturday, the pope gathered money managers and titans of the world’s biggest oil companies during a closed-door conference at the Vatican and asked them if they had gotten the message.

“There is no time to lose,” Francis told them on Saturday.

Pressure has been building on oil and gas companies to transition to less polluting forms of energy, with the threat of fossil-fuel divestment sometimes used as a stick.

The pope said oil and gas companies had made commendable progress and were “developing more careful approaches to the assessment of climate risk and adjusting their business practices accordingly.” But those actions were not enough.

“Will we turn the corner in time? No one can answer that with certainty,” the pope said. “But with each month that passes, the challenge of energy transition becomes more pressing.”…—Elisabetta Povoledo, “Pope Tells Oil Executives to Act on Climate: ‘There Is No Time to Lose’,” The New York Times, 6/9/18

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China’s Dramatic Solar Shift Could Take Sting
Out of Trump’s Panel Tariffs

China’s Dramatic Solar Shift Could Take Sting Out of Trump’s Panel Tariffs

“It’s changing the tone from negative to positive for the U.S.,” said Xiaoting Wang, an analyst with Bloomberg New Energy Finance (BNEF).

Last week, the Chinese government announced it would halt approvals of new subsidized utility-scale solar plants, limit the amount of smaller-scale distributed generation installed and shrink the subsidies it provides to solar generators. All told, these policies are expected to cut the amount of solar capacity installed this year in China by 30 to 40 percent, according to Wood Mackenzie and BNEF.

Because China leads the world in new solar installations, the steep drop in demand will ripple across the global market.…—Nicholas Kusnetz, “China’s Dramatic Solar Shift Could Take Sting Out of Trump’s Panel Tariffs,” InsideClimate News, 6/8/18

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2014 Report Casts Doubt on Fracking Production

Drilling Deeper: New Report Casts Doubt on Fracking Production Numbers

Post Carbon Institute has published a report and multiple related resources calling into question the production statistics touted by promoters of hydraulic fracturing (“fracking”).

By calculating the production numbers on a well-by-well basis for shale gas and tight oil fields throughout the U.S., Post Carbon concludes that the future of fracking is not nearly as bright as industry cheerleaders suggest. The report, “Drilling Deeper: A Reality Check on U.S. Government Forecasts for a Lasting Tight Oil & Shale Gas Boom,” authored by Post Carbon fellow J. David Hughes, updates an earlier report he authored for Post Carbon in 2012.

Hughes analyzed the production stats for seven tight oil basins and seven gas basins, which account for 88-percent and 89-percent of current shale gas production.

Among the key findings:

-By 2040, production rates from the Bakken Shale and Eagle Ford Shale will be less than a tenth of that projected by the Energy Department. For the top three shale gas fields — the Marcellus Shale, Eagle Ford and Bakken — production rates from these plays will be about a third of the EIA forecast.

-The three year average well decline rates for the seven shale oil basins measured for the report range from an astounding 60-percent to 91-percent. That means over those three years, the amount of oil coming out of the wells decreases by that percentage. This translates to 43-percent to 64-percent of their estimated ultimate recovery dug out during the first three years of the well’s existence.

-Four of the seven shale gas basins are already in terminal decline in terms of their well productivity: the Haynesville Shale, Fayetteville Shale, Woodford Shale and Barnett Shale.

-The three year average well decline rates for the seven shale gas basins measured for the report ranges between 74-percent to 82-percent.

-The average annual decline rates in the seven shale gas basins examined equals between 23-percent and 49-percent. Translation: between one-quarter and one-half of all production in each basin must be replaced annually just to keep running at the same pace on the drilling treadmill and keep getting the same amount of gas out of the earth.

The report’s findings differ vastly from the forward-looking projections published by the U.S. Energy Information Agency (EIA), a statistical sub-unit of the U.S. Department of Energy (DOE).

The findings also come just days after Houston Chronicle reporter Jennifer Dlouhy reported that in a briefing over the summer, EIA Administrator Adam Sieminski told her it was EIA’s job to “tell the industry story” about tight oil and shale gas production.—Steve Horn, “Drilling Deeper: New Report Casts Doubt on Fracking Production Numbers,” DeSmogBlog, 10/27/14

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PIPE DREAMS – FRACTURED LIVES

PIPE DREAMS – FRACTURED LIVES

CAST: David Smith, Lou Allstadt, Prof Tony Ingraffea, Helen Bender, Brian Monk, Ron Gulla

What if your government is risking the health of your family for quick cash?

Join an Aussie farmer, tired of political spin, as he takes on a fact-finding mission into the effects of Fracking. His inspiring journey takes him from the southern point of country South Australia to Northern Australia and across the world to the USA. Hear the stories of everyday people speaking out to give you an insight into this industry as well as the science from world experts.

We all want fresh air, clean water and food that is safe for our family. See why this has the potential to impact us all.—David Smith, “Pipe Dreams – Fractured Lives,” Fan-Force

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Pruitt Starts Rewriting How EPA Weighs Costs, Benefits of Regulation

Pruitt Starts Rewriting How EPA Weighs Costs, Benefits of Regulation

The Environmental Protection Agency took its first step on Thursday toward a comprehensive overhaul of the cost-benefit calculations that underpin the entire array of its regulations, notably any actions to rein in global warming.

In a notice inviting the public to comment on whether and how to adjust its methods, the agency signaled a potential wave of revisions to how it seeks balance in its rules under laws governing air, water, solid waste, pesticides and climate change.

One option it flagged, which could have far-reaching effects on rules involving fossil fuels, the main source of greenhouse gases, would do away with expansive calculations of benefits when rules meant to control one form of pollution also serendipitously cut back on another.

Because burning fossil fuels gives off many kinds of harmful pollution, regulators have commonly cited the full range of ancillary benefits that arise whenever new rules suppress the use of coal, oil and natural gas. At the request of industry, the EPA’s notice said, the agency will consider changing this approach.

Even if some proposed rule could bring greenhouse gas emissions down to zero, such as by replacing fossil fuels with clean alternatives, the agency would not count the benefits to public health that would result as choking smog and soot vanished along with the carbon dioxide.…—John H. Cushman Jr., “Pruitt Starts Rewriting How EPA Weighs Costs, Benefits of Regulation,” InsideClimate News, 6/7/18

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New Mexico official says Texas landowners are ‘stealing€ millions of gallons of water and selling it back for fracking

New Mexico official says Texas landowners are “stealing” millions of gallons of water and selling it back for fracking

Water restrictions in New Mexico have created a supply crunch for the fracking industry, so more free-flowing Texas water is helping to fill the void. But not without controversy: A top New Mexico politician says Texans are pumping his state’s water and piping it across the state line for oil drillers.

ORLA — After you head northeast on Ranch Road 652 from tiny Orla, it’s easy to miss the precise moment you leave Texas and cross into New Mexico. The sign just says “Lea County Line,” and with 254 counties in Texas, you’d be forgiven for not knowing there isn’t one named Lea.

But the folks who are selling water over it know exactly where the line is.

That’s because on the Texas side, where the “rule of capture” rules groundwater policy, people basically can pump water from beneath their land to their heart’s content. But on the New Mexico side, the state has imposed tight regulations on both surface and groundwater that restrict supply.

Here’s the rub — or the opportunity, depending on your perspective: With an oil fracking boom driving demand for freshwater on both sides of the state line in these parts, Texas landowners are helping to fill the void with water from the Lone Star State — including from at least one county in which Gov. Greg Abbott has declared a drought.

Now a top New Mexico politician is crying foul, saying that unregulated pumping from wells next to the state line is depleting the shared aquifers that supply water to southern New Mexico.

“Texas is stealing New Mexico’s water,” said New Mexico State Land Commissioner Aubrey Dunn. “If you put a whole bunch of straws in Texas and you don’t have any straws in New Mexico, you’re sucking all the water from under New Mexico out in Texas and then selling it back to New Mexico.”…—Jay Root, “New Mexico Official Says Texas Landowners Are ‘Stealing’ Water And Selling It Back For Fracking,” The Texas Tribune, 6/8/18

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In Colorado, a Fracking Boom and a Population Explosion Collide

In Colorado, a Fracking Boom and a Population Explosion Collide

WELD COUNTY, Colo. — A new oil rig will rise behind a middle school in this sprawling county in the coming months, its slender tower bearing an announcement: fracking is back.

After a downturn that began in 2015, oil and gas production is booming again, and new projects are sprouting along American freeways and padding government budgets, cheered by state legislatures, the fossil fuel industry and the Trump administration.

But this growth is also spurring a return of the turmoil that accompanied the last boom, pitting neighbor against neighbor and communities against companies in a fight over which projects should be allowed to pierce the land.

In few places is that tension more evident than along Colorado’s Front Range, where a fracking boom is colliding with a population explosion. Drilling applications in the state have risen 70 percent in just a year, while the area north of Denver is expected to double in population by 2050.…—Julie Turkewitz, “In Colorado, a Fracking Boom and a Population Explosion Collide,The New York Times, 5/31/18

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Oilsands ponds full of 340 billion gallons of toxic sludge spur fears of environmental catastrophe

Oilsands ponds full of 340 billion gallons of toxic sludge spur fears of environmental catastrophe

Amid the bogs and forests of northern Alberta, in the heart of the Canadian oilpatch, lie some of the largest waste dumps of the global energy business.

In the shadow of the pipes and smokestacks that turn oil sands into flowing crude, earthen dams as long as 11 miles encircle lakes of toxic sludge, the byproduct of decades of extraction.

Further reading: Big Oil abandoning Canada’s oilsands in quest for cleaner crude

These waste pools — known as tailings ponds — represent perhaps the most serious environmental challenge facing the oilsands industry. Now, the battle over how quickly to clean them up — and fears about who will pay — are escalating anew.

To howls from environmentalists, the provincial energy regulator granted two industry giants — Suncor Energy Inc. and Canadian Natural Resources Ltd. — approval for plans that could push a full cleanup decades into the future. Critics say the industry could end up sticking taxpayers with the bill, estimated at $27 billion (US$22 billion).…—Kevin Orland, “Oilsands ponds full of 340 billion gallons of toxic sludge spur fears of environmental catastrophe,” Financial Post, 1/16/18

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As Glacier-Fed Rivers Disappear, One-Sixth of Global Population Is at Risk

As Glacier-Fed Rivers Disappear, One-Sixth of Global Population Is at Risk

A recent University of Alberta-led project, the 2018 State of the Mountains Report, has sounded the alarm bell of how the rapid loss of glacial coverage in Canada’s mountains is causing rivers to disappear.

One of the examples cited in the report is how the Slims River (Ä’äy Chù) experienced a “Piracy Event” in southwestern Yukon. During the spring melt of 2016, the Slims River, one of the primary water sources of Kluane Lake (Lhù’ààn Mǟn), dried up after the Kaskawulsh Glacier receded so much that its dwindling meltwaters started to flow in a completely different direction. Near the end of that summer, Kluane Lake was a full meter lower than its previous record low level.

“This is one stark example of a very big drainage system that utterly and permanently reorganized itself in a single season,” University of Alberta mountain historian Zac Robinson told Phys.Org. “Kluane Lake is a massive lake that isn’t being fed any longer and is seeing its levels dropping. What does that do to the ecosystem and the communities on that lake that depend on that water?” —Dahr Jamail, “As Glacier-Fed Rivers Disappear, One-Sixth of Global Population Is at Risk,” Truth-out, 6/4/18

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And That’s A Wrap! Thanks to everyone who sent in news, action announcements and comments this week. Send kudos, rotten tomatoes and your story ideas, your group’s action events, and news of interest to intrepid climate change and environmental justice warriors! Send to editor@thebanner.news.